In today’s global era, where competition continues to grow every day, which is making the organizations to perform better and deliver products which satisfy their customer needs. But the world was not changed by sitting on the couch and drinking a chocolate latte, similarly, a company or an organization is made of many people working together to help achieve a common goal. Without proper supervision, no employee will ever be at his/her full potential that is why a company should have a management approach such as the total quality management approach.

Total quality management has four main components, which are: quality planning, quality assurance, quality control, and quality improvement. The TQM (Total quality management) approach focuses on continuous quality improvement of products and services by using various measures like taking the feedback from the customer and acting on it.
This management system originated in Japan and since then this management system has been improved and used in various departments such as schools, motorway maintenance, hotel management, churches, etc. Quality management system plays a vital role in the success or loss of the firm. The TQM system believes in the involvement of everyone starting from the top management to the employees, to fully meet their customer’s needs and requirements.

Where TQM signifies:
Total: The responsibility of achieving the best quality lies with each and every employee of the firm
Quality: The main goal of any business operation is to understand the customer’s needs and wants and then work to deliver that product
Management: The quality, vision, values, and goals are communicated by the top-level management to all the employees and then work on improving the flow to make the process more efficient.
There are a few basic principles on which the TQM operates:
● Customer focus
In the business world, the customer is supposed to the king. Under the TQM system, the organization needs to understand their customers’ needs and exceed their expectations and provide them satisfaction, for this the customer or the target group of customers are made the center of attention.
● Continuous improvement
Continuous improvement whenever and wherever possible, the organization looks for every possible nook or corner for any scope of improvement. The work of every employee is regularly analyzed to determine the potential effective or efficient improvement.
● Employee involvement
All Of the firm’s employees, ranging from top-level management to the newest employees work together to reach the goal of the organization. The main goal of every employee is to increase the quality and meet the customers’ expectations.
● Two-way communication
Under Total quality management, the main goal is to deliver better and improved products to the customers, and for that, both the management and the employees should be aware of the goals, strategies, issues, concerns, and opportunities that need to be dealt with and to fulfill this, the information should flow from top
management to the employees ( top to bottom) as well as from employees to the top management ( bottom to top) through a systematic channel.
● Process
The TQM system believes that better products are achievable only when activities are performed and managed as an integrated process, it helps the organization to fun Smoothly and in a more effective manner.
● Decision-based on research and evidence
The TQM system makes decisions on the basis of research and analysis of information in order to obtain the desired results without any mistakes.
Various activities come under TQM, some of which are:
● Team improvement
● Time efficiency, by reducing the extra time wasted in fixing the mistakes
● Delivering products and services which meet the customer expectations ● Committed work performance by the employees
● Reduced final cost
● Greater awareness of quality and resources
Benefits of TQM
Noticeable benefits can come knocking on your door, by implementing Total quality management, such as:
● Strengthen the position of the firm in the market
● Makes the firm prepared for upcoming challenges
● Focus on the customer and their needs
● Improved process
● Efficient management
● Increased profits
● Boosts employee morale.
● Increases productivity
TQM Tools
Here are the basic TQM tools:
● Flow charts: To a new or non-familiar reader a flow chart might seem difficult to read as it contains texts, lines, arrows. Showing the flow of all these elements represents the processes, problems, and points out other factors of the firm.
● Cause and effect, Fishbone diagram:
Also Known as the Ishikawa diagram, the main purpose of this diagram is to express the various causes and their effects. They are of three basic types: Dispersion analysis, Process classification, and cause enumeration.
● Histogram or Bar graph:
It Is the graphic representation of a set of data which otherwise would have been difficult to read, analyze or even identify. This graphical representation helps us to see patterns that would have been difficult to see and draw conclusions.
● Check sheets:
A Form, representing the results of a set if given tasks. Anyone can read and understand these data. They are easy and quick to use.
● Checklist:
These Lists are usually used in operational situations, it helps to ensure that all important steps or actions have been taken. They are not recorded for the collection of data, instead, they are recorded to ensure that proper processes with all the necessary steps have been taken.
Six Sigma and Total quality management
Six Sigma and TQM, both of these are management systems and both exist to help different organizations to perform better and prepare them for future challenges. Yet there are a few differences between the two. Total quality management’s main focus is on improving the process whereas six sigma exists to decrease the variations. Six Sigma requires days of training, mentoring, and understanding of various principles and methodologies. It comes with various benefits, one can easily get six sigma certificates online as there are various sites providing the facility. Whereas Total quality management does not require any specific certification, it only requires training of staff. Despite the differences, the two can be used side by side, because each has different aims and objectives but in the end both results in improved outcomes.