Ketamine is a medication that is primarily used for pain management.
The active ingredients in ketamine differ significantly from other anesthetics in terms of its effect, which is also beneficial in certain conditions.
For example, Ketamine increases blood pressure and heart rate. Also, it has a strong antidepressant effect and is therefore used in managing depression.
You can now relax and grab a cup of coffee while you read the full guide on how Ketamine can be beneficial to you.
How ketamine works:
Ketamine is also a strong pain reliever (analgesic), a bronchodilator, local anesthetic, and has anticonvulsant, sympathomimetic (activating the sympathetic nervous system), and mood-enhancing (antidepressant) effects.
Ketamine belongs to the group of anesthetics since it has anesthetic properties.
Your consciousness and responses to stimuli are controlled by hormones, nerve impulses, and other substances such as glutamate, GABA, or acetylcholine in the central nervous system.
When there’s an accident or other conditions that make a victim experience severe pain such as surgery, these impulses would be shut down.
At the same time, in addition to pain relief, muscle relaxation and the shut down of nerve impulses are required during surgical operations.
The effect of ketamine is based on the reversible blockade of the docking point of the messenger substance like glutamate (so-called NMDA receptor), whereby consciousness can be reversibly switched off.
Ketamine is the only so-called “injection anesthetic” that also has an analgesic effect.
The pain-relieving effect of ketamine comes about through the activation of opioid receptors.
The other properties of the substance can be explained by the influence of various central and peripheral neurotransmitters (messenger substances) or catecholamines (hormones).
Also, ketamine helps to develop what’s referred to as “dissociative anesthesia”.
This is a condition where the person under the treatment can open his eyes but with a loss of consciousness since the protective reflexes are preserved.
Ketamine is therefore preferred for patients with severe trauma, severe pain, and circulatory problems.
How is Ketamine Used?
Ketamine is injected into a vein or muscle for anesthesia.
The effect occurs after intravenous administration in just a couple of minutes, and with intramuscular administration after about 7 minutes.
The mind-numbing effect however lasts for about 25 minutes and longer in adults and seniors.
However, the sensation of pain can be suppressed with ketamine administration for at least 30 minutes.
After the active ingredient has been distributed throughout the body, it is broken down in the liver.
The breakdown products can be removed from the body through the kidneys.
When ketamine is used as a nasal spray (therapy for depression), the active ingredient is absorbed through the nasal mucous membranes and enters the bloodstream, bypassing the liver.
The rest of the breakdown and excretion then occurs as if it were injected into a vein or muscle.
When can ketamine be used?
Ketamine therapy is a breakthrough treatment for mental, physical, and substance abuse, according to find keratin, and can be used in the following areas.
- Treatment of pain in emergency medicine and short-term diagnostic procedures
- Induction and maintenance of anesthesia
- Treatment-resistant depression in combination with another antidepressant
- Therapy-resistant status of asthma (severe asthma attack)
- Dosage Application of Ketamine:
The active ingredient in ketamine is used exclusively by medical doctors.
The dosage for treating pain is usually 0.25 to one milligram per kilogram of body weight.
For induction of anesthesia, one to two milligrams per kilogram of body weight is required for intravenous administration and four to six milligrams per kilogram of body weight for intramuscular administration.
A useful combination is made with the active ingredient midazolam.
Any other drug from the benzodiazepines can reduce the side effects of ketamine such as hallucinations, nightmares when waking up from anesthesia, and it’s often used in conjunction with ketamine therapy.
For the treatment of therapy-resistant depression, the nasal spray is used, with 28 or 56 milligrams in the first week to a maximum of 84 milligrams twice a week in the first month of treatment.
This is followed by maintenance therapy with a maximum of 84 milligrams once a week up to the 9th week, followed by a lower dose to a maximum of 84 milligrams every two weeks.
The ketamine nasal spray is only approved for adults aged 18 and more.
The safety and effectiveness in children and adolescents under 18 years of age have not been established.
Due to the complex dosage regimen, the success of the therapy is checked at regular intervals by the attending physician.
Like every other treatment procedure, it’s likely to have interactions with other drugs, substances or have some certain level of restrictions.
For ketamine treatment, interactions can occur when it’s used with certain drugs or in some conditions.
For example, thyroid hormones and sympathomimetics such as adrenaline (during resuscitation), xylometazoline (in decongestant nasal sprays), or fenoterol (an asthma medicine) can increase the side effects of ketamine, which is shooting up the blood pressure.
Ketamine can also increase the effects and side effects of opioids and opiates, which can lead to increased effects on the central nervous system or increase the risk of respiratory depression.
The effect of neuromuscular blockade inhibitors (e.g. atracurium) can also be increased with the use of ketamine therapy.
Ketamine is broken down by the enzyme CYP3A4, therefore, the active ingredients that block this enzyme may make it necessary to reduce the dose of ketamine.
There are not many stories of successful use of ketamine treatment on pregnant mothers and lactating mothers.
Before use, however, the doctor will therefore weigh the health benefits against the inherent risks.
According to studies in animals, the active ingredient is excreted in breast milk, but an effect on the infant appears unlikely at therapeutic dose levels.
How To Get Ketamine:
Drugs containing ketamine require a prescription note in the US and many other countries but are usually available in licensed pharmacists’ shops.
The active ingredient may only be used by qualified individuals and ketamine can be used in combination with strong sedatives (midazolam), otherwise, nightmares and hallucinations can occur after waking up from anesthesia.
After the anesthesia, the patient is often still in a twilight state, which is due to the mechanism of so-called “dissociative anesthesia”, however, the effect decreases slowly over time.
After the administration, ketamine has a sedation